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What is holistic time management?

time-management-adhd

Health-TreeI define holistic time management as “applying the strategies necessary in order to lead a happier, healthier, longer, more productive and fulfilling life.” It encompasses both external and internal time management, as well as health, stress, lifestyle and environmental issues that affect the body, mind and spirit.

Just as holistic medicine treats the whole person, so holistic time management goes beyond the quest for efficiency and looks at all aspects of a person’s life that influences both personal productivity and health and well-being.

The major topics covered in my workshop on holistic time management fall neatly into an acronym, which spells out the word HOLISTIC.

Health. Although time has been touted as your greatest asset, it is really your health that is your greatest asset. And too often, health is being put at risk in order to save time. Health management is the most important component of holistic time management.

Organization. You can still be successful in spite of being disorganized; but it takes greater effort and uses more of the precious commodity called time.

Lifestyle. Next to health, longevity is your greatest ally in managing your time. Living a few extra years in good health beats efficiency hands-down. You not only get more accomplished, you are around longer to enjoy everything that life has to offer.

Internal body time. Overlooked in most traditional time management workshops, working in sync with your biological clock makes life easier and allows you to accomplish more things with less effort. It also recognizes the brain’s role in your concept of time – if you don’t remember something, for you, it didn’t exist.

Spirituality. It takes mind, body, and spirit, working in unison, to produce a long, healthy, happy, productive life. Holistic time management involves the development of all three.

Time use. You can’t ignore traditional ways of managing time efficiently and effectively. Setting goals, planning, scheduling, prioritizing, and focus remain integral parts of holistic time management.

Interpersonal relationships. We do not work or live in isolation. How we interact with others – communicating, networking, delegating, socializing and collaborating – all impact our success in managing our time.

Cognitive skills. As mundane tasks are outsourced, creativity becomes the gold rush of the future. With the advance of technology, effective time management is becoming more mental than physical. We must understand how our brain works, and how we can take advantage of its untapped power to enhance our time and life management skills.

These eight areas will be discussed in more detail at our holistic time management teleseminars. The next one is scheduled for Thursday, November 20, 2014 from 8 pm to 9 pm Eastern time. You can learn more about the teleclass or register here

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Sleep deprivation causes weight gain

ObesityResearch indicates that sleep deprivation causes weight gain and obesity. A CBS “60 Minutes” documentary aired on March 16, 2008, reported that four nights without sufficient deep sleep affects more than just performance, judgment and memory. It also presents a risk factor for diabetes. One of the interviewees commented that diabetes was now an epidemic. In fact sleep researchers were attributing some of the obesity problem being experienced in North America to sleep deprivation. Evidently lack of sleep makes us hungry and we overeat.

Researchers at the University of Chicago discovered that overweight dieters lost over 50 percent more weight when they averaged 7 and a half hours of sleep per night for two weeks than they did when they slept for only 5 hours a night. Too little time sleeping can also make you hungrier during the day.

The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, also did a carefully controlled study in a laboratory setting where volunteers were closely monitored for three days to determine how much they normally ate and slept. Half of them were then allowed to continue their normal routine for another eight days, while the other half were allowed to sleep only two-thirds of their usual sleep time. Both groups were allowed to eat as much as they wanted.

Results showed that the reduction in sleep led to an increase in food consumption. The sleep-deprived group consumed an average of 549 additional calories on the days after their sleep was cut short compared to when they got their normal rest. Without compensating through additional exercise, this could add an extra pound to their weight in less than a week. It’s interesting that there appears to be two epidemics currently occurring in North America – obesity and sleep-deprivation.

There are plenty of studies that show a relationship between sleep and eating habits. Lack of sleep robs us of self-control and the brain regions required for complex judgments, and decisions become blunted. One study of 13,284 teenagers found that those who slept poorly also made poor decisions.

On the positive side, you can view good sleep habits as a way of controlling your weight and getting the proper amount of sleep at the same time. It’s certainly a lot less painful than most diet programs. As an example, consider the study conducted at Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas. 32 students kept diaries of how much sleep they got and which foods they ate over a 3-week period. The first week they ate and slept as they usually did; but on the second week they slept an extra two hours a day.

The third week they went back to their normal routine. The students who got an extra two hours of sleep during week two ate nearly 300 calories a day less than in week one. When they returned to their normal sleep-deprived routine, they once again ate more food.

And weight gain isn’t the only consequence of inadequate sleep. John Medina, in his book Brain Rules (2008) has a whole chapter devoted to sleep. He emphasizes that loss of sleep affects learning as well as cognitive skills. He described a study of soldiers operating complex military hardware. A loss of one night’s sleep resulted in a 30% loss of cognitive skill and a corresponding drop in performance.

Don’t sacrifice sleep in order to get more things done. That’s when the new things you have learned are being processed and memories are being organized and stored. Sleepless brains don’t perform well. If you don’t get enough sleep, you become dysfunctional.

Just as the old example of pausing to sharpen the axe will allow you to cut more logs in less time, so will taking time to sleep properly increase your personal productivity.

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Technology and ADHD

Technology and ADHD, is there a relationship between the two? “ADHD  diagnoses skyrocket in the U.S.,” is the headline of an article appearing in the  April 2, 2013 issue of the Toronto Star. Referring to a report from the New York  Times, the article went on to say that nearly one in five boys of high school age in  the United States are being diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It  is estimated that 6.4 million children ages 4 through 17 were diagnosed at some  point in their young lives as having ADHD. This represents a 53% increase in the  past decade.

Of course ADHD is more readily diagnosed nowadays; but it’s interesting how the increase in ADHD parallels the increase in the use of technology, including smart phones, social media, computer games and the Internet. According to Gary Small, UCLA professor of psychiatry, the current explosion of digital technology is not only changing the way we live and communicate, it is rapidly and profoundly altering our brains. A study by psychologists at Iowa State reported in 2010 found that kids who exceeded the recommended two hours per day of screen time were one and a half to two times more likely to have attention problems in the classroom. And psychiatric investigators in South Korea find that 20% of Internet-addicted children and teens end up with relatively severe ADHD symptoms.

Although other reasons have been proposed for the increase in ADHD, including decreasing air quality (as indicated in a February 15, 2014 Toronto Star article titled ‘Neurotoxicants’ hindering brain development in kids) the plasticity of the brain, combined with the incessant bombardment of digital technology and observable changes revealed by functional MRIs, places greater credence on technology being the culprit.

An online poll of over 1000 Canadian adults released by Angus Reid/Vision Critical (Toronto Star, January 26, 2013) revealed that 90% of the respondents believed their smartphones made their lives more convenient. So convenient, evidently, that 30% of them went online before getting out of bed, 31% at the dinner table, 29% in the washroom and 42% before falling asleep at night.

We adults should know that smartphones may seem smart, but they lack intelligence. Why are we so willing to be at the beck and call of an idiot? The Internet leads everywhere, which for the undisciplined means nowhere. Why browse away the hours? Email, computer games and social media are endless, but our time is not. So why do we behave as though we will live forever?

Research shows that the Internet and digital technology can have a negative impact on our ability to learn, focus, pay attention, memorize and relate to others on a personal basis. It also gobbles up our time, encourages busyness and multitasking and stifles creativity.

The futures of our business, personal lives, and our nations do not depend on technology, but on our ability to manage the technology we develop. In my book, Time management in an ADHD world, I review some suggestions for living in harmony with technology by being its master rather than its servant, and coping with our ADHD behaviors.

Harold Taylor’s book Time management in an ADHD world is available from Amazon in Kindle format

 

 

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Negative Effects of Stress – and how to reduce them

Negative effects of stress

Although stress can help us in times where extra strength or speed is needed we now live in a society where we are confronted with too much stress. Because of this we also now see the negative effects of stress on both our emotional and physical lives.

Stress can induce the release of cortisol, and excess cortisol impairs function in the prefrontal cortex – an emotional learning center that helps regulate the “executive skills,” including working memory. The overproduction of cortisol was found in seniors who were experiencing memory loss. And it is believed by many neurologists that memory loss experienced by seniors is largely a factor of stress, not age. Prolonged exposure to cortisol has also been shown to shrink the hippocampus by up to 14 percent.

An article in the September, 2014 issue of the Reader’s Digest (A new way of thinking by Philip Preille) reported that a few years ago a major U.S. study confirmed previous findings that high levels of cortisol, when produced for too long, impair mental retention. The alleviating factor is face-to-face contact with others. All evidence reports to social activities – anything from bridge clubs to evening classes, particularly volunteerism – to relieving stress and improving memory. Seniors who double up on their volunteering activities live up to 44% longer than non-volunteers.

Chronic stress kills brain cells and effects memory, so a hassle-free life is a healthier life. In stressful situations, your weakest executive skills fail first and become more pronounced. Fatigue and information overload tend to weaken them further. Avoiding, releasing or being able to manage stress is important. You should re-examine your workload. Simplify if possible. Delegate and outsource. Pace yourself. Too much exertion without breaks taxes the executive skills, including working memory. In fact studies have shown that people who exert themselves mentally, such as resisting the temptation to eat chocolate or whatever, gave up on problems sooner when presented with them immediately afterwards. (Scientific American Mind, May/June, 2011)

Available for Kindle

Although drinking too much coffee has been associated with stress, in moderation it seems to give memory a boost. A brief article in the spring, 2014 issue of Health magazine describes a link between caffeine and memory. Michael Yassa of John Hopkins University asked 60 people to view a series of images of different objects. Then, five minutes later, after receiving either a placebo or 200 milligrams of caffeine, were tested the next day on their ability to recognize images from the day before. More people from the caffeine group recognized that an image was similar to rather than identical with one they had viewed earlier. Separate research published in the Journal of Public Health Nutrition also showed that one or two cups of tea a day can boost brain power and athletic performance. This held true for children as well.

Finally, don’t take yourself too seriously. Laughter reduces stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, aids immunity, changes mood for the better, helps you think – and improves memory. Sandra Kornblatt, in her book A better brain at any age, also gave an account of how humor during instruction led to increased test scores.

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How our memory works

Memory ImageA simple way of explaining how our memory works  is that we possess two separate memory systems – short-term memory or working memory, and long-term memory. Paying attention and hearing the information properly is usually enough to get it into our short-term memory, and we have no trouble repeating a name when we are first introduced. But unless we make a conscious effort to transfer it to long-term storage, the memory of it soon disappears. That’s why I suggest you repeat the name out loud during introductions, say it silently to yourself several times, and write it down and review it later.

Now assuming you get the information into long term storage you may still have a problem recalling the information at a later date. Just how much of a problem depends on how effectively we memorized the information in the first place and how many handles we have provided in order to pull the information out of our memory bank. The more you know about a person you meet, the more handles you provide. Our mind works through association. The more things you associate with the person’s name, such as the name of his wife, where he works, the type of food he likes, his hobbies, education etc. etc., the more handles you provide. Later when you’re trying to recall the person’s name you can think about the place you met, who introduced you, and the dozen other things that are all connected to his name, and eventually one of these facts will stimulate the recall of his name from long-term memory. Two things experienced together will become associated with each other in our mind.

Perhaps this may be a generalization, but I think women have a better memory for names then men for this reason. They seem to be more genuinely interested in other people. I know when I talk to someone, I don’t ask many questions. I talk about the weather and sports and news stories, but little about the personal life of the individual. But if you had left my wife with someone for five minutes she would know the person’s background, family situation, likes, and dislikes and what she had for dinner the night before.

Available for Kindle

According to Elaine Biech, author of Training for dummies, about 70% of Western culture is a visual-learning culture. This means that while you should involve as many senses as possible when learning new material, the emphasis should be on the visual. You are a big part of the learning process, so don’t simply sit and absorb. Your enthusiasm and physical movement also contribute to the learning process.

Learning that takes place through the senses, according to Biech’s book, is; taste, 1%, touch, 1.5%, scent, 3.5%, aural, 11% and visual, 83%. Research conducted by 3M showed that we process visuals 60,000 times faster than text. Our brain can detect images simultaneously but language and text are decoded in a linear, sequential way – taking more time to process. Our brains are wired to respond differently to visuals than to text.

We tend to be good at forgetting non-essentials and instead remember the information we think about often or that has emotional significance to us. According to Ernest Hartmann, professor of psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, mulling over important thoughts activates our dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain region that facilitates memory. The more impressive, vivid and emotional your thought, the more likely you are to remember it.

The above fact will be used when I cover the association method that can be used to remember almost everything. The more you participate physically, mentally and emotionally while memorizing, the easier you will be able to recall the information later. A brain scan study reported in the journal Nature Neuroscience showed that even making gestures as you’re listening heightens activity in the brain’s memory center, activating other cells that wouldn’t normally be involved. It was found that even touching your ear or chin as you learn a new phone number and then touching it again when trying to recall it will activate the additional neural circuits that give you an advantage in recall.

When you recall an event again and again, the first recall will be the most accurate one. It’s more like putting a puzzle together rather than replaying a video. Memories are rebuilt every time that they are accessed and influenced by more recent experiences.

After the 9/11 attacks, for example, psychologists surveyed several hundred subjects about their memories of that day. They then repeated the surveys of the same people one year later. 37% of the details had changed. By 2004, that number was 50%. They had no idea their memories had changed that much.

In my book, Boosting your memory & sharpen your mind, I suggest how you can memorize information so that recall is easy, and a lot more accurate. It’s available for Kindle on Amazon

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Memory is Important for Good Time Management

Memory is important for good time managementJust as time management is vital to the effectiveness of managers, administrators, students, and others, so organizing your mind, memory and recall are equally vital to our personal productivity and success. Memory is important for good time management on many levels. Time wasters such as forgetting vital information at a meeting, having to constantly refer to the same memo or email and having important assignments slip through the cracks can be just as counterproductive as constant interruptions, rush jobs, or changing priorities.

Organizing your thoughts is just as important as organizing your desk. Just as searching your desk and files for lost information can waste an hour or more per day, so can searching your memory for data you thought would be on the tip of your tongue. You must manage mental time as well as external time.

How important is memory? How about this headline from the May 23, 2011 edition of the Toronto Star newspaper: “Toddler dies after being forgotten in hot car.” The reason suggested by the wife of the father who had forgotten to drop off the child at day care on the way to work: “He was distracted while juggling many responsibilities.” And I have read of at least a half-dozen other similar cases in the past few years.

Available for Kindle

Working memory (short-term memory) is critical for keeping information in the mind until you are ready to do something with it. But the brain can only juggle so much information without losing some of it. The prefrontal cortex has its limitations. As David Rock, author of Your brain at work expresses it, “If the processing resources for holding thoughts in mind were equivalent to the value of the coins in your pocket right now, the processing power of the rest of the brain would be roughly equivalent to the entire U.S. economy.”

Studies of pilot errors in fatal airline crashes indicate that problems are rarely due to the pilot not knowing what to do or when do it, but more often due to failures in resuming a task after being interrupted. This is an example of weak working memory.

Thankfully, the results of forgetting are not all tragic. But one scientist, Dr. Zach Hambrick of Michigan State, believes that an individual’s working memory is the deciding factor in determining whether a person is good or great. He found that those with greater working memory capacity outperformed those with lower levels – including those with extensive experience and knowledge of the task being performed.

Available for Kindle

Dr. Hambrick is not the only scientist who thinks there is a link between working memory and general cognitive performance. Some researchers believe it is at the very root of intelligence. Strengthening your working memory ability is important, and neuroscientists feel that it can be strengthened. An article in the May 5, 2011 Toronto Globe and Mail titled “The brain can juggle only so much” by Mark Fenske, co-author of The winner’s brain, claims that practice can improve working memory. He illustrated this by using a computer-based task that requires information to be held in mind while updating it or comparing it to newly presented information. Not only did those involved in the training improve in working memory, but also in concentration and reasoning ability.

Multitasking puts a strain on working memory since it requires you to bring back important pieces of information for each task as you switch back and forth between them. If you do have to switch tasks suddenly, such as attending to an important interruption, take a few seconds to jot down what still needs to be done before moving to the new task.

You can compensate for the distractions of the digital age of speed, increase your ability to quickly memorize and recall information – in addition to exercising the brain. Techniques than can help you do this are covered in my recent book, Boost your memory & sharpen your mind. Check it out.

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We Should Limit our Use of Technology

Holistic Time Management

The Shallows - Nicholas CarrTechnology is a beautiful and wondrous thing. We can shop online, do online banking, send electronic greetings to our family and friends, download music, watch movies on our laptops, dictate to our computers using voice-activated software, and read electronic books on portable handheld devices — among hundreds of other things, most of which were unavailable in our grandparents’ lifetime.

I see nothing wrong with reading e-books or performing any of the above activities with the aid of technology. But we should limit our use of technology. What will happen to us if we stop reading altogether and remain cocooned in our homes, infrequently meet personally with friends and relatives, and spend more time watching movies than interacting with our children.

Nicholas Carr, in his book, The Shallows: what the Internet is doing to our brains, claims he has noticed changes in his own reading. He loses concentration after a page or two, becomes fidgety, loses track of the story line and looks for something else to do.

Available for Kindle

The ability to focus is one of the most critical brain functions according to Barbara Strauch, author of The secret life of the grown-up brain. And this ability depends on the strength of our executive skills, which are currently under attack by the unrelenting impact of both technology and our fast-paced lifestyle.

Multitasking taxes the brain, and gets progressively worse as we age. Have you ever been distracted by a telephone call only to forget what you were going to do before the distraction? The other morning I found myself brushing my teeth with after-shave lotion! (But others might attribute this to senility.) Research indicates you can have several motor programs running simultaneously, such as steering a car, chewing gum and reaching for a cell phone; but you can only focus your conscious attention on one thing according to Shelley Carson, author of Your creative brain, because your brain thinks sequentially.

Available for Kindle

Our lifestyle seems to be changing to one of constant rushing to get more things done, and researchers studying people’s behavior at traffic lights have spotted people combing their hair, applying makeup, eating breakfast cereal, reading newspapers, talking on cell phones and even using laptops. To quote Barton Sparagon of the Meyer Friedman Institute in San Francisco, “Hurrying is a struggle against time — and that’s unhealthy.” And Faith popcorn, author of The popcorn report, claims “Speed-eating has developed into a fine art.”

Cramming more activities into a day causes stress, and stress causes sleeplessness, and lack of sleep causes impatience and the ability to concentrate (among the other ailments mentioned in my brief book, Sleep: a time management strategy.. It’s a vicious circle. Is technology to blame? No, we are to blame. We have allowed technology to manage us rather than the other way around.

Controlling technology and taking action to strengthen our brain-based executive skills, we can not only cope with the rapid increase in technology, information and speed, we can increase our productivity and our ability to manage our time and our lives as well.

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What are the benefits of sleep?

Benefits of sleepYour body is programmed to spend one third of its life asleep – and to sleep in specific cycles of light sleep, deep sleep, and active brain sleep. Each cycle takes about 90 minutes and each has a specific assignment that affects thinking, memory, growth, your immune system and even your weight. So what are the benefits of sleep?

Benefits of Sleep

We spend about a third of our life sleeping for very good reason — or I should say reasons — many of which are yet to be discovered. But what we do know is that sleep allows us to learn new things and transfers the significant ones into our long-term memory. Sleep prepares and replaces damaged neurons, calms disease-triggering inflammation, and keeps us mentally sharp, creative and productive. It even controls the aging process, helps keep our weight down, lowers our blood pressure and impacts our overall health.

Another important benefit of sleep was reported in the February, 2014 issue of Scientific American Mind. Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that sufficient sleep not only restores cognitive functioning, but also may fortify the brain over the long term. During sleep, activity is increased in genes involved in producing brain cells responsible for coating neurons with myelin, the brain`s insulating material. This allows electrical impulses to travel quickly and efficiently to other neurons. Myelin deficiency is at the root of multiple sclerosis disease, and can contribute to symptoms such as fatigue, vision and hearing impairment and a loss of coordination.

A study published by the National Academy of Sciences reports that even an hour or two less sleep a night can negatively impact more than 700 genes required for repairing cell tissue.

Chiara Cirelli, a neuroscientist and author of the paper describing the above research, suggests that sleep helps cells regenerate and repair themselves by helping the body produce new myelin after it has deteriorated.

When it comes to managing time, sleep can be classified as a time management strategy. I explain why in my book, Sleep: a time management strategy, available through Amazon.

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Sleep is an important time management strategy

Sleep as time management strategySleep will help extend the time you have available to get things done, and thus sleep is an important time management strategy. And as I continue to write, speak professionally, and develop training programs in my eighties, I can almost speak from personal experience. I say almost since there are a lot of things besides sleep that contribute to brain health and longevity. But just as I tried practicing what I preach in order to slow the perceived passage of time — as described in my book Slowing down the speed of life — I have recently brought my sleep time from six hours a night to seven hours a night with equally good results.

I didn’t always think this way. Over thirty years ago I had joined other time management consultants in recommending the opposite; sleep less and get more done. We urged our clients to set their alarms 15 minutes earlier each week until they noticed that they got tired by early afternoon, and then set it back to the last setting. We felt many people were getting more sleep than they needed (and some were), and that if they could get a head start on the day with an extra half hour or more of “prime time”, they could get more done.

This was before the holistic time management era — and before all the research now available on the role sleep plays in our health, longevity, and productivity. It was also before the digital age of speed. Now, people don’t even have to get out of bed to start working; they can sleep with their Blackberries, iPads, or smart phones, which can then accompany them from bedroom to bathroom to breakfast to bus or car to business and to the boardroom.

Today there is little concern about sleeping too much; the concern is about sleeping too little. The lure of the Internet, computer games, social media, e-mail and text messaging keep us from going to bed early. And the stress of the day, the worry of unfinished tasks lingering in our thoughts, and the widespread view that sleep is an inconvenience to be tolerated but not enjoyed, keep us from sleeping soundly once we are there.

Gary Small, who writes the Brain Bulletin, and speaks on that topic, says that sleep deprivation is one of the risk factors in Alzheimer’s. The June, 2014 issue of Scientific American Mind quotes neuroscientist Dwayne Godwin as saying that sleep helps clear the brain, flushing away waste products such as Alzheimer’s-related proteins. One sleep scientist claims that sleep is one of the most important predictors of how long you will live — as important as whether you smoke, exercise or have high blood pressure.

And I claim that through adequate sleep, you can increase your personal productivity and effectiveness by at least 20 percent, reduce anxiety and stress, and increase your health and well-being in the process.

In my brief book, Sleep: a time management strategy, I claim that sleep is one of the most important time management strategies for you and for your staff, clients and family.

Perhaps I couldn’t make this claim before the advent of electronic technology; because back in those days most people were probably getting sufficient sleep. The average person now gets 90 minutes less sleep a night than a century ago. In my lifetime, the average amount of sleep we get has decreased from just over eight hours to 6.7 hours. (I recently read a figure of 6.5 hours, along with an explanation that this is the average amount of sleep people say they get but by the measurement of brain activity while these same people were sleeping, the actual figure was 6.1 hours.)

62 percent of Americans report difficulty sleeping at least a few nights a week. About 90 percent of teens in the U.S. don’t get enough sleep. And children who don’t get enough sleep are often misdiagnosed with ADHD.

If you get less than six hours sleep a night you are considered to be sleep deprived. And even getting less than seven hours a night produces sleep debt that should be repaid by napping, which is also discussed in my book, Sleep: a time management strategy.

Yes, taking dementia and any current health issues out of the equation, getting an average of 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night will increase your personal productivity. I am referring to the amount of actual sleep you actually get, not the amount of time you spend in bed.

Both of the short books I mentioned in this article are available on Amazon as Kindle e-books:
Sleep: a time management strategy
Slowing Down the Speed of Life

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General Suggestions for Strengthening Executive Function Skills

strengthening executive function skillsThis is the last article in the series on strengthening your executive function skills, those brain-based skills required to execute tasks – that is, such things as getting organized, planning, initiating work, staying on task, controlling impulses, regulating emotions, being adaptable and resilient and having a strong working memory. Following are some general suggestions for strengthening executive skills.

In stressful situations, your weakest skills fail first and become more pronounced. Fatigue and information overload tend to weaken them further. Avoiding releasing or being able to manage stress is important. Also you should re-examine your workload. Keep organized, plan, and allocate your time to things of importance. Simplify if possible. Delegate and outsource. Pace yourself. Too much exertion without breaks taxes the executive skills. In fact studies have shown that people who exert themselves mentally, such as resisting the temptation to eat chocolate or whatever, gave up on problems sooner when presented with them immediately afterwards. (Scientific American Mind, May/June, 2011)

You should also get plenty of sleep. Sleep deprivation definitely impairs functioning of the executive skills. For example, a student scoring in the top 10% in grades dropped to the bottom 9% after only seven hours per sleep per night and seven hours 40 min. on weekends

Many of these skills have to do with self-discipline and that definitely can be improved through practice. For example turn down desert once in a while, or second cup of coffee. Give up your favorite TV program or sporting event and so on. You could have a glass of water instead of a milkshake and resist that chocolate bar after golf.

Neuroscience has proven that the more you use a circuit in the brain, the stronger it becomes. The reverse is also true, so don’t relinquish all your tasks to a computer. Training your memory, creative writing or any skill can be strengthened through practice. But variety seems to be the key. Improving one executive skill does not necessarily improve all the others. Doing crossword puzzles only increases your ability to do crossword puzzles. And this is true for most computer games as well.

There are exceptions, however. Exercise, for instance, stimulates the creation of new neurons not confined to the region of the hippocampus that stores new memories. Art Kramer of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that a year of exercise can give a seventy-year-old the connectivity of a thirty-year old. Other activities such as meditation and certain video games can change brain structure so brain processes are more efficient. And learning a second language can sharpen many of the executive skills.

The important thing to remember is that your brain needs exercise just as much as your body – and you won’t remember that if you don’t give it enough exercise.